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2.5. Sub-ledgers

Subsequent accounting is understood as systems with which individual accounts or account areas are subdivided into subaccounts or recorded and presented using other methods.

2.5.1. personal accounts

In the case of personal accounts, separate accounts are kept for customer receivables and supplier liabilities for each customer (called debtors) or suppliers (called creditors) showing the invoices and payments relating to these persons. This then results in the open items that still need to be paid. Done items were cleared on the person accounts, i.e. mutually compensating invoices, credits and payments were marked with a number. Postings with no numbers behind them were open items.

In the 1494 system, the personal accounts were intended as sub-accounts of the customer receivables and supplier liabilities, which should then be completed through this G / L (General Ledger) account. The G / L accounts then show a balance list of debtors or creditors. With each journal column for customer receivables and supplier liabilities, the respective sums per journal sheet were also posted to the G / L accounts, and the customer and vendor accounts became subordinate bookkeeping. Now balances-lists of the debtors or accounts payable were made at regular intervals, in order to check the agreement of the sub-ledger accounting with the general ledger accounts, and also to get an overview of the open items.

When opening a personal account after a financial statement, all previously open items in the opening bookings had to be recounted separately.

2.5.2. foreign currencies

Particularly in the small states of Italy and Germany, a large number of different currencies coexisted. In Germany, a common German parallel currency was created only with the introduction of the Talers in the German customs union in the year 1857 (a Taler = 30 Groschen = 360 Pfennige), which was replaced in 1871 by the Mark and the decimal system (1/3 Taler = 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig). South German states had mostly the Gulden, the Hanseatic cities the mark and in Prussia the Taler (this name was also adopted by the USA for its currency, in the Low German pronunciation "Dolar", the second L was due to the harsh pronunciation of the American English added), but there were also different exchange rates between currencies with the same name. Business in foreign currencies was, therefore, until the late 19th century, an everyday business of merchants.

The accounting was conducted in the domestic currency. In foreign currency accounts receivables, liabilities and cash balances were juxtaposed in both currencies. The regularly fixed exchange rate was noted next to the account name. Totals and balances were determined for both columns, but only the balance of the domestic currency was included in the balance sheet. At the end of the year, however, the foreign currency amounts were also carried forward.

2.5.3. Inventory Accounting

The logic of foreign currencies could also be transferred to accounts, in which in addition to the monetary units and units of measure should be kept. The units of measure were treated as one currency. However, since prices can always be different here, the purchasing department had to enter quantity and monetary units separately instead of multiplying the units of measure by the price. On the other hand, an estimated average price had to be assumed for consumption or sales. A weighted average pursuant to section 240 (4) HGB or a consumption-follow-up procedure according to section 256 HGB are only suitable for the evaluation in financial statements, because only the end of the period must wait here. To estimate whether an estimate is still up-to-date, the unit price of access must appear from the accountancy account.

Inventory accounting records every important material type and every commodity on its own subaccount. The sums of the amounts for the inflows and outflows can then also be transferred to collective accounts in General Ledger Accounting. It is not recommended to conclude inventory accounting using G / L accounts. Clearing accounts were necessary for the offsetting entries in the transfer.

Using the logic of warehouse accounting accounts, it was possible to create consumption statistics for expense accounts by adding the cost and the consumption amount. Theoretically, one could also have a third column for sizes that caused the consumption. For example, fuel consumption of a truck could cost, liters, and km driven in three columns. However, the system of 1494 did not develop this train of thought, even though the pronounced inventory accounting did not come into being until industrialization.

2.5.4. Fixed-Assets-Accounting

Fixed-Assets-Accounting is a system in addition to bookkeeping in tabular form, not subaccounts. This sub-accounting has emerged only in or after industrialization, when the better transparency of investments, which constituted the essential operating base of the industry, became a major concern. In addition to the current values, the original acquisition or production costs should also be shown. A large gap between the two values indicates a need for reinvestment soon. Pursuant to Section 284 (3) HGB, the depreciations, additions, disposals, reclassifications and write-ups of the financial year and depreciation are based on total acquisition and production costs at the beginning and end of the financial year, which were carried out during the financial year Depreciation and amortization of depreciation in its entirety in connection with additions, disposals and transfers during the year in the notes.

For this purpose, the objects of the fixed assets, the acquisition costs of which exceed a minimum limit, were recorded on an index card and the required information was entered there. All index cards were transferred to the list with the values for the fiscal year in a list, which represented all objects among each other. Subtotals and totals were created for the objects of individual G / L accounts and then the balance sheet items.

This investment grid was then condensed to a statement of changes, which only shows the condensed figures of the respective balance sheet item. This schedule of assets is covered by Section 284 (3) HGB.

The carrying amount of the fixed assets is the difference between the total acquisition and production costs and the total depreciation at the end of the financial year. These book values were reconciled between asset lending and G / L accounts. A presentation of this comprehensive data on sub-accounts would be very expensive.

2.5.5. Payroll

Payroll accounting is also a method outside accounting on accounts. According to the logic of fixed-asset-accounting, a so-called payroll account is kept for each employee, on which the wage components and the individual deductions for each month are listed in one line. Due to the large number of required columns, several tables for payroll components and deductions can be maintained. Then, e.g. a table for all deductions led from the wage, and deducted in the actual payroll (journal) only one amount. In payroll journals, the same column breakdown shows the data of the respective payroll month for all employees. The data for the individual employees are processed in addition to the payroll, which forms the basis of the salary payment. The sum of the deductions forms the basis for the payments of taxes and social security contributions; the sum of the wage types used to post the personnel costs. Due to the details in payroll accounting, a condensed amount is sufficient for a posting to G / L accounts.